Even though I walk through the [sunless] [c]valley of the shadow of death,
I fear no evil, for You are with me;
Your rod [to protect] and Your staff [to guide], they comfort and console me.
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies.
You have anointed and refreshed my head with [d]oil;
My cup overflows.
Surely goodness and mercy and unfailing love shall follow me all the days of my life,
And I shall dwell forever [throughout all my days] in the house and in the presence of the Lord. – Psalm 23:4-6
The Lord’s people feast at His table, upon the provisions of His love. Satan and wicked people are not able to destroy their comforts, while they’re anointed with the Holy Spirit, and drink of the cup of salvation which is ever full. – Matthew Henry
Anointing the head with oil is a great refreshment. There are three qualities of oil — laevor, nitor, odor, a smoothness to the touch, brightness to the sight, fragrancy to the smell, and so, gratifying the senses, it must needs cause delight to those anointed with it. To this Solomon alludes when persuading to a cheerful life, he saith, “Let thy head lack no ointment.” How fully doth this represent the Spirit’s unction which alone rejoices and exhilarates the soul! It is called the “oil of gladness”, and the “joy of the Holy Ghost.” Nathanael Hardy.
According to the biblical meaning of the word, anointing of a particular person was also carried out then for the purposes of healing, both physically and spiritually.
I. David had been anointed to kingship. All Christians are kings, even as all Christians are priests; but kings only anointed not crowned, as they are priests ordained, not yet admitted to celestial ministries; and though the ordination to priestly service be now the more prominent honour, it is not such as to distrust or overshadow the kingly name and destiny.
II. David had been anointed from on high. David’s crown was a sure one, and surer than that already worn by Saul; and so is every Christian’s. God’s purposes in providence and grace are sure as the seasons and the sun. The kingship of every believer rests not on his own might or wisdom, not on the counsels and plans of his fellow men, but on the irreversible and sovereign grace of God.
III. David had been anointed to present rule, as well as future honour. He had forthwith to rule himself as a preparation for ruling others.
IV. David was anointed of the Spirit. With the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord.
V. David was anointed in secret. The anointing of David was not a public act.
VI. David was anointed with the oil of joy. Oil was a symbol of joy. “And oil to make his face to shine.” Of Messiah it is said, “Thy God hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows.” (John Stoughton, D. D.)