The lot is cast into the lap,
[d]But its every decision is from the Lord. – Proverbs 16:33
In these cases the Jew learned to see, in what we call chance, the overruling of Divine power. But this was not blind superstition. He did not feel justified in resorting to this practice on every trivial occasion, as persons used the Sortes Virgilianae or even the verses of the Bible for the same purpose. The lot was employed religiously in cases where other means of decision were not suitable or available; it was not to supersede common prudence or careful investigation; but, for example, in trials where the evidence was conflicting and the judges could not decide the case, the merits were ascertained by lot. After the effusion of the Holy Spirit, the apostles never resorted to divination, and the Christian Church has wisely repudiated the practice of all such modes of discovering the Divine will. – Pulpit Commentary
The Old Testament has several examples of lots being used, which was necessary for direction, since the Holy Spirit had not yet been given (at least, not yet in the New Testament sense). For instance, land assignments in Canaan were determined by lot. Detection of the sinner, Achan, was identified by lot. The punishment against the tribe of Benjamin was determined by lot. Essentially, people were seeking direction from God in situations for which they had no other way to discern truth. When the lot was used obediently, the action expressed commitment to do as God willed. The method of the lot itself was not a point of emphasis, but rather, trust in God was the emphasis, who gives wisdom and controls the outcome.
The wise make decisions, not based on the fatalistic assumptions of philosophy, but based on prayer, fasting, seeking Godly counsel and waiting on the peace that passes all understanding which can only comes by the guidance of the Holy Spirit within. – Leighton Flowers
God wants us to be mature, sensitive to His spirit and know His word so we will not seek Him in aberrant ways but in the way He gave through the new covenant. God used various means in ancient days but today He wants believers to be mature in the word and depend on knowing Him to do His will.
Events that seem to be random to us are actually not random. They are determined by God.